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back substitution

Back-Substitution

The process of solving a linear system of equations that has been transformed into row-echelon form or reduced row-echelon form. The last equation is solved first, then the next-to-last, etc.

 

Example:

Consider a system with the given row-echelon form for its augmented matrix.

The equations for this system are

\(\eqalign{x - 2y + z &= 4\\y + 6z &= - 1\\z &= 2}\)

The last equation says z = 2. Substitute this into the second equation to get

\(\eqalign{y + 6\left( 2 \right) &= - 1\\y &= - 13}\)

Now substitute z = 2 and y = –13 into the first equation to get

\(\eqalign{x - 2\left( { - 13} \right) + \left( 2 \right) &= 4\\x &= - 24}\)

Thus the solution is x = –24,y = –13, and z = 2.

 

See also

Augmented matrix

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